domingo, 6 de enero de 2019


Atlas of Afghanistan

Afghanistan in its region.svg
Flag of Afghanistan.svg

پښتو[1]افغانستان - د افغانستان اسلامي PK C EN ARABE ALORS QE LE TITRE EST EN FRANCAIS
جمهوری افغانستان ; پښتو: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوريت, فارسي (دري): جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان) په غرونو کې کلابند يو هېواد دی چې د اسيا د لوې وچې په څلورلاره کې پروت دی. په ټولګړې توګه دا هېواد د منڅنۍ آسيا يوه برخه ده،‌ خو کله ناکله بيا په داسې سيمې څرګند شوی چې نه په منځني ختيځ او نه پر سوېلي اسيا پورې تړلې ده،‌ او دا پدې چې دغه سيمه د منځني ختيځ او سوېلي اسيا سره فرهڼيز، ژب توکميز او جغرافيکي اړيکې لري. دا هېواد په لوېديځ کې د ايران سره،‌ په سوېل او ختيځ کې د پاکستان سره،‌ په سهېل ختيځ کې د چين سره، په سهېل کې د تاجکستان، ازبکستان او ترکمنستان سره ګډې پولې لري.
فارسی[2]افغانستان - جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
سرزمین افغانستان در طول تاریخ گلوگاه تهاجم به هند بوده‌است؛ جنگجویان بسیاری چون «اسکندر مقدونی»، «محمود غزنوی»، «تیمور گورکانی»، «نادر شاه افشار»، از پیچ و خم کوه‌ها و دره‌های این کشور خود را به هندوستان رسانده‌اند. علاوه بر این تا قبل از کشف راه‌های آبی در قرون جدید و سپس توسعهٔ راه‌های هوایی، خط مسیر بازرگانی شرق و غرب، از دشت شمال این کشور عبور می‌کرد که محل عبور کاروان‌های جادهٔ ابریشم از این سرزمین بوده که عموماً از طریق قندهار به هند و از طریق بلخ به چین می‌رفت. پس از کشف راه‌های آبی و سپس توسعهٔ راه‌های هوایی، افغانستان مانند سایر سرزمین‌های آسیای مرکزی، تبدیل به منطقه‌ای محصور شد.
EnglishAfghanistan - Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country located at the heart of Asia. Generally considered part of Southern Asia, it is sometimes ascribed to a regional bloc in either Central Asia or the Middle East, as it has religious, ethno-linguistic, and geographic links with most of its neighbours. It is largely bordered by ► Pakistan in the south and east, ► Iran in the west, ► Turkmenistan► Uzbekistan and ► Tajikistan (with ► Gorno-Badakhshan) in the north, and the ► People's Republic of China (► Xinjiang) in the far northeast.

Short name Afghanistan
Official  nameIslamic Republic of Afghanistan
StatusIndependent country since 1919
LocationCentral Asia
Capitalکابل‎ (Kabul)
Population29,863,000 inhabitants
Area652,090 km²
Major  languagesPashto and Dari (both official)
Major  religionsIslam
More informationAfghanistanGeography of AfghanistanHistory of Afghanistan and Politics of Afghanistan
More  imagesAfghanistan - Afghanistan (Category).

General maps

CIA map of Afghanistan in 2007.gifMap of Afghanistan
Afghan-big.jpgMap of Afghanistan
Afghan topo en.jpgTopographic map of Afghanistan

Maps of divisions

This section holds maps of the administrative divisions.
Afghanistan provinces named.pngProvinces of Afghanistan
Afghanistan provinces pashto.pngProvinces of Afghanistan (in Pashto)
Afghanistan provinces dari.pngProvinces of Afghanistan (in Dari)
Afghanistan District.pngDistricts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan districts.pngDistricts of Afghanistan

History maps

This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Afghanistan, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Afghanistan.

Early history

Present-day Afghanistan is around 1500 and 800 BC part of Ariana.

Persian rule

Flag of None.svg6th century BCE-328 BCE: Achaemenid Empire - occupying country ► Iran
Persian Empire, 490 BC.gifAriana is conquered by Persia in the sixth century BC. This map shows the Achaemenid Empire (Persia (648–330 BCE) at its greatest extent. Ariana becomes a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire.

Macedonian rule

Verginasun.jpg328 BCE-323 BCE: Macedonian Empire - occupying country ► Macedonian Empire
MacedonEmpire.jpgIn 328 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedon enters the territory to capture Bactria. This map shows the Expedition of Alexander the Great 334-323 BCE
Diadochen1.pngHellenistic successor states:
   Kingdom of Ptolemy
   Kingdom of Cassander
   Kingdom of Lysimachus
   Kingdom of Seleucus
Other states:
Hellenistic world 200BC blank.pngHellenistic world in 200 BCE
Greco-Bactrian kingdom.jpgGreco-Bactrian kingdom (250-125 BCE)
Indo-GreekKingdomMap11.jpgIndo-Greek kingdom (180 BCE-10 AD)
Indo-GreekKingdomMap3.jpgIndo-Greek Kingdom
Invasions by the Scythians, White Huns and Turkic tribes follow in succeeding centuries. Mentionable is the rule since the first century by the Kushanas, a buddhist people.
Kushanmap.jpgKushan Empire
Hephthalite.pngHephthalite dominion (520)
Harshabysumchung.jpgHarsha's Empire around 600
LocationParthia.PNGThe Parthian Empire (250 BCE-226 CE)
Scythia-Parthia 100 BC.pngMap of Parthia 100 BC
Indo-Sassanid.jpgIndo-Sassanide Empire
Sassanid Empire 620.pngThe Persian Sassanian Empire (226-650) in 602 to 629, Strokes: Under Sassanid military control.
Carte empire Sassanide.pngSassanide Empire
Sassanides02.pngSassanide Empire
Arabische Rijk.jpgIn 642 the Caliphate invades the entire region and introduces islam. Expansion of the Caliphate: I: Muhammad; II: Abu Bakr; III: Omar and IV: Othman
Age of Caliphs.pngAge of the Caliphs
Califate 750.jpgCaliphate around 750
The rule of the Caliphate is replaced by a temporary Persian rule until the area is conquered by the Turkic Ghaznavids in 998. Ghazni is turned into a great cultural center as well as a base for frequent forays into India.
Mongol Empire map.gif
This file has annotations. Move the mouse pointer over the image to see them.
Various princes attempt to rule sections of the country until the Mongol invasion of 1219 led by Genghis Khan. Map showing changes in borders of the Mongol Empire from founding by Genghis Khan in 1206, Genghis Khan's death in 1227 to the rule of Kublai Khan (1260–1294). (Uses modern day borders)
   Mongol Empire
By 1294 the empire had split into:
   Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty)
Following Genghis Khan's death in 1227, a succession of chiefs and princes struggle for supremacy until late in the 14th century, when one of his descendants, Tamerlane, incorporates Afghanistan into his own vast Asian empire. Babur, a descendant of Tamerlane and the founder of India's Mogul dynasty at the beginning of the 16th century, makes Kabul the capital of an Afghan principality.
Stormogulernas rike 1600.jpgMughal Empire (1600) and European possesions
Moghul india.pngMughal Empire (1700) and Maratha Confederacy (1860)
Mughal empire large.pngMughal Empire (1526-1857)
Mughal1700.pngMughal Empire
India shepherd 1923.jpgIn 1747 Afghanistan liberates itself from the Empire of the Great Mogul. The State of Afghanistan is formed and Ahmad Shah Durrani establishes his rule. Throughout his reign, Durrani consolidates chieftainships, petty principalities and fragmented provinces into one country. His rule extends from Mashad in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxus) River in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. From time to time separate Afghan states are installed in Kandahar and Herat. Though the country is united sincethen, it has to accept after the second Anglo-Afghan war (1878-80), that brings Amir Abdur Rahman to the throne, a British protectorate in 1881. The British retain effective control over Kabul's foreign affairs.
After the third Anglo-Afghan war in 1919, Britain relinquishes its control over Afghan foreign affairs by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi. This means full independence of Afghanistan and the establishment of a more or less constitutional monarchy. King Amanullah (1919-29) renames the country Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1926 and introduces modernization and secularization. This leads to his assassination and a short civil war. In 1929 Nadir Shah becomes king. Four years later, however, he is assassinated in a revenge killing by a Kabul student.
In 1933 Mohammed Zahir Shah becomes king. He introduces in 1964 a liberal constitution providing for a two-chamber legislature to which the king appointed one-third of the deputies. The people elected another third, and the remainder were selected indirectly by provincial assemblies. He permits a multi-party system. This leads to the formation of the communist Hizb-i-Democratic-i-Khalq (People's Democratic Party, HDK), which had close ideological ties to the Soviet Union. In 1967, the PDPA split into two major rival factions: the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Noo Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and supported by elements within the military, and the Parcham (Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal. After a coup d'état in 1973 Afghanistan becomes a dictatorial republic and is renamed Republic of Afghanistan. Mohammed Daoud Khan, until that moment prime minister, becomes president.
In 1978 the HDK seizes power and a communist dictatorship is established under the HDK, lead by Noor Mohammed Tarraki (1978-1979). The country is renamed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. When Taraki is assasinated in 1979 he is succeeded by Hafizullah Amin (1979). At that moment the USSR invades the country and installs after the assasination of Amin Babrak Karmal as new president. Islamic factions start a guerilla war against the regime and the soviet-occupation. In an attempt to moderate Afghanistan is renamed into Republic of Afghanistan in 1987. Karmal is replaced by Mohammed Najibullah in 1986.
In 1990 the Islamic mujaheddin (Holy Warriors) expel the communist dictatorship. Though a central government is installed, de facto the country is ruled by warlords. In 1992 the central government renames the country into the Islamic State of Afghanistan. Burhanuddin Rabbani becomes president. The civil war continues and in 1996 the Taleban movement of spiritual leader Mullah Mohammad Omar seizes power in most of the country. Afghanistan becomes a theocratic dictatorship and is renamed Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Mullah Mohammad Rabbani is appointed president.
After an invasion by the United States in 2001, followed by a popular uprising, the dictatorship collapses. Afghanistan gets a transition governement and is renamed Islamic State of Afghanistan. Burhanuddin Rabbani resumes office, but the same year he is succeeded by Hamid Karzai. In 2004 a new constitution is accepted, identifying Afghanistan as an "Islamic Republic." The constitution paves the way for nationwide presidential and parliamentary elections to be held in june 2004. The government's authority beyond the capital, Kabul, is slowly growing, although its ability to deliver necessary social services remains largely dependent on funds from the international donor community.
SovietInvasionAfghanistanMap.pngCommunist invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan map civilwar01.pngAfghanistan just before the US invasion
Afghanistan provinces 1996-2004.pngProvinces until 2004

Old maps

This section holds copies of original general maps more than 70 years old.
Hindoostanmap1812.jpgHindustan in 1812 by Arrowsmith and Lewis
Meyers b16 s0872a.jpgMap of Central Asia from Meyers Konversationslexikons (1885-1900), showing what is now Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and parts of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Chin

Other maps

Ethnolinguistic Groups in Afghanistan.pngEthhno-Linguistic map of Afghanistan
US Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan.jpgProvincial Reconstruction Teams

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